|Graft, Implant, Transfer
|Remove, Extract, Withdraw
|The process of moving an organ or tissue from one person to another
|The groundbreaking partial face transplant performed by French doctors gained worldwide attention and raised ethical questions.
|Bird Flu, H5N1, Bird Virus
|Human Influenza, Seasonal Flu
|A highly contagious viral infection affecting birds, sometimes transmitted to humans
|In two thousand five, concerns about avian influenza rose as the H5N1 virus appeared in birds in Europe, raising fears of a potential human pandemic.
|Worry, Anxiety, Unease
|Assurance, Calmness, Indifference
|A feeling of apprehension or worry about a situation or event
|The global health community expressed great concern about the potential of avian influenza to develop into a form that could easily spread among humans.
|Immunization, Inoculation, Shot
|Disease, Infection, Vulnerability
|A substance used to stimulate the production of antibodies and provide immunity
|Various countries initiated efforts to develop vaccines against avian influenza to prevent its potential spread among the general population.
|Efficacy, Efficiency, Productivity
|Ineffectiveness, Inefficiency, Failure
|The degree to which something achieves its intended purpose
|The effectiveness of avian influenza vaccines remains uncertain until tested in real-world scenarios involving the virus’s transmission among humans.
|Immunity, Defiance, Opposition
|Vulnerability, Submission, Acceptance
|The ability to withstand the effects of a particular treatment or substance
|Recent research suggested that resistance to the antiviral drug Tamiflu may be more common than previously believed, posing challenges in treating influenza.
|Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
|Health, Well-being, Fitness
|A disease caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) affecting the immune system
|In two thousand five, three million more people died of AIDS-related conditions, highlighting the ongoing global impact of the HIV/AIDS pandemic.
|Therapy, Medical care, Intervention
|Neglect, Abandonment, Inattention
|Medical procedures or actions taken to cure, manage, or alleviate a disease
|Despite advancements in AIDS treatment efforts, the United Nations reported increases in HIV cases globally, emphasizing the need for continued prevention and care.
|Growth, Rise, Expansion
|Decrease, Decline, Reduction
|A rise in the number, quantity, or extent of something
|Most regions experienced an increase in the number of HIV cases, but the Caribbean remained unchanged as the second hardest-hit area after southern Africa.
|Long-term Illnesses, Persistent Conditions
|Acute Diseases, Short-term Ailments
|Medical conditions that persist over an extended period
|Chronic diseases, such as heart disease and diabetes, are major contributors to global mortality and disability among adults.
|Impairment, Handicap, Incapacity
|Ability, Capability, Competence
|A physical or mental condition that limits a person’s movements, senses, or activities
|Chronic diseases are a leading cause of disability worldwide, emphasizing the importance of preventive measures and healthier lifestyles.
|Nutrition, Food, Regimen
|Malnutrition, Starvation, Fasting
|The kinds of food that a person habitually eats
|Health officials emphasize that a better diet, regular exercise, and avoiding smoking can significantly reduce the risk of chronic diseases.
|Physical activity, Workout, Training
|Inactivity, Sedentary lifestyle, Laziness
|Physical activity done to maintain or improve health and fitness
|Regular exercise is recommended as a preventive measure against chronic diseases, promoting overall well-being and reducing associated risks.
|Tobacco use, Cigarette consumption
|Non-smoking, Abstinence, Avoidance
|The act of inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning tobacco
|Quitting smoking is a crucial step in reducing the risk of chronic diseases, as smoking is a major contributor to various health issues.
|Global outbreak, Epidemic, Widespread
|Localized outbreak, Containment
|An outbreak of a disease that occurs over a wide geographic area
|The fear of avian influenza evolving into a pandemic prompted global efforts to monitor and contain the spread of the virus.
|Attracted notice, Captured interest
|Went unnoticed, Ignored, Overlooked
|Attracting awareness or interest from a large audience
|The partial face transplant performed by French doctors gained attention worldwide, sparking discussions about the ethical implications of such medical procedures.
|Moral dilemmas, Ethical concerns
|Unethical behavior, Immorality
|Issues related to morality, principles, and right and wrong conduct
|The partial face transplant raised ethical questions about the appropriateness and potential consequences of such medical interventions.
|International society, World population
|Local community, Regional population
|The community of nations or people worldwide
|The global community expressed collective concern and collaborated to address the potential threats posed by avian influenza, highlighting the interconnectedness of health issues.
|Continuous influence, Persistent effects
|Temporary influence, Limited effects
|The sustained and lasting effects of a particular phenomenon
|The ongoing impact of the HIV/AIDS pandemic underscores the need for ongoing efforts in prevention, treatment, and support for affected individuals and communities.
|Preventative actions, Protective steps
|Reactive responses, Remedial actions
|Actions taken to avoid or reduce the occurrence of a particular event or condition
|Health officials stress the importance of preventive measures, including vaccination, to mitigate the impact of infectious diseases like avian influenza.